305 -Fields (5)

At the end of last lecture we stated a theorem giving an easy characterization of subfields of a given field {mathbb F}. We begin by proving this result.

Theorem 18. Suppose {mathbb F} is a field and Ssubseteq{mathbb F}. If S satisfies the following 5 conditions, then S s a subfield of {mathbb F}:

  1. S is closed under addition.
  2. S is closed under multiplication.
  3. -ain S whenever ain S.
  4. a^{-1}in S whenever ain S and ane0.
  5. S has at least two elements.

Proof. Notice that 0in S: If ain S (and there is some such a, by condition 5) then -ain S by 3, and therefore 0=a+(-a)in S by 1.

Similarly, 1in S: First, there is some nonzero element in S, since S has at least two elements by 5, and only one of them at the most can be zero. Let ain S, ane0. Then a^{-1}in S by 4, and therefore 1=aa^{-1}in S by 2.

Once we have that 0,1in S, the verification of the field axioms (see Definition 1 in lecture 4.1) is straightforward since Ssubseteq {mathbb F}, and {mathbb F} is a field. {sf QED}

Examples. 1. {mathbb Q}subseteq{mathbb R}subseteq{mathbb C}, so {mathbb Q} is a subfield of {mathbb R} and {mathbb C}, and {mathbb R} is a subfield of {mathbb C}.

2. {mathbb Z}_2 is a subfield of both the field of 4 elements and the field of 8 elements. However, the field of 4 elements is not a subfield of the field of 8 elements. This is because any nonzero element of the field of 4 elements satisfies x^4=x while any nonzero element of the field of 8 elements satisfies x^8=x. This means that we would have at least one xne0,1 such that x^4=x^8, but x=x^4=x^8(x^4)^{-1}=1, contradiction.

3. S={a+bsqrt2 : a,bin{mathbb Q}} is a subfield of {mathbb R}. To see this, one verifies conditions 1–5 of Theorem 18. Conditions 1–3 and 5 are straightforward. To check condition 4, notice that if xin S and xne0, say x=a+bsqrt2, with a,bin{mathbb Q}, then it cannot be that both a and b are zero. Then displaystyle frac1x=frac{a-bsqrt2}{a^2-2b^2}, because a-bsqrt2ne0. This is because a-bsqrt2=0 implies that bne0, since otherwise from a-bsqrt2=0 we also have a=0, and we cannot have both a,b being zero simultaneously since xne0. But then a-bsqrt2=0 implies that sqrt2=a/bin{mathbb Q}, which we know is not the case.

But then displaystylefrac 1x=left(frac a{a^2-2b^2}right)+left(frac {-b}{a^2-2b^2}right)sqrt2 in S, and condition 4 follows.

Definition 19. If S is a subfield of {mathbb F} and ain {mathbb F}, the smallest subfield of {mathbb F} that contains S and has a among its elements is denoted by S(a).

Next lecture we will show that there is indeed such a smallest subfield. Notice that in Example 3 above, we in fact have S={mathbb Q}(sqrt2). This is because if {mathbb F}subseteq{mathbb R} is a field, {mathbb Q}subseteq {mathbb F}, and sqrt2in{mathbb F}, then Ssubseteq {mathbb F}, since {mathbb F} must be closed under addition and multiplication. But, since S is already a field, there can be no smaller subfield of {mathbb R} that contains {mathbb Q} and has sqrt2 as an element.

4. Similarly, {mathbb Q}(sqrt n)={a+bsqrt n : a,bin{mathbb Q}} for any integer (in fact, any rational) n. Here, we see {mathbb Q} and sqrt n as being in {mathbb C} rather than {mathbb R} in case n<0. Note that if n is already the square of a rational, then {mathbb Q}(sqrt n)={mathbb Q}.

5. {mathbb Q}(root 3of 2)={a+broot 3of 2+croot 3of 4 : a,b,cin{mathbb Q}}. Again, we use Theorem 18, and only condition 4 requires special care. Suppose that a,b,cin{mathbb Q} and that a+broot 3of2 + croot 3 of 4ne0. We claim that a^3+2b^3+4c^3-6abcne0. This is because of the following identity, closely related to the inequality between the arithmetic and the geometric means, see this post for further discussion:  

displaystyle a^3 +2 b^3 + 4 c^3 -6abc = frac 12 (a + root 3of{2} b + root 3of{4} c)times ((a-root 3of 2 b)^2+(a-root 3of 4 c)^2+(root 3of 2 b-root 3of 4 c)^2).

Notice that a^3+2b^3+4c^3-6abc is the determinant of the matrix displaystyleleft(begin{array}{ccc}a&2c&2b\ b&a&2c\ c&b&aend{array}right), so the system of equations displaystylebegin{array}{rcrcrcl} ad&+&2ce&+&2bf&=&1\ bd&+&ae&+&2cf&=&0\ cd&+&be&+&af&=&0end{array} has a unique solution (d,e,f), and d,e,f must be rational since they are obtained from a,b,c by means of the elementary operations (+,-times,div). But this means that (a+broot 3of 2+croot 3 of 4)(d+eroot 3of 2+froot 3of 4)=1, or (a+broot 3of 2+croot 3 of 4)^{-1}=d+eroot 3of 2+froot 3of 4.

Definition 20. A number rin{mathbb C} is transcendental iff it is not a root of any polynomial with rational coefficients.

6. The number pi is known to be transcendental. This is a deep theorem of Ferdinand von Lindemann from 1882. This means that we have no “concrete” description of {mathbb Q}(pi) as in the examples above, since (for example) if a+bpi+cpi^2=1/pi for some rational a,b,c then pi would be a root of the cubic polynomial cx^3+bx^2+ax-1=0. On the other hand, it turns out that one describe {mathbb Q}(pi) in easy terms: {mathbb Q}(pi)={p(pi)/q(pi) : p,q are polynomials with rational coefficients, q(x)notequiv0}.


2 Responses to 305 -Fields (5)

  1. […] Last lecture we characterized subfields and used the characterization to provide many new examples of fields. Now we start to explore systematically which subfields of the complex numbers are suitable to study the question of which polynomial equations can be solved. […]

  2. […] knew that Corollary 8 holds in a few particular cases, for example for for See also lecture 4.5. The argument above is much more general, and reduces significantly the amount of computations […]

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