580 -Partition calculus (6)

April 24, 2009

1. The ${\mbox{Erd\H os}}$-Rado theorem

Large homogeneous sets (of size ${\omega_1}$ or larger) can be ensured, at the cost of starting with a larger domain. The following famous result was originally shown by ${\mbox{Erd\H os}}$ and Rado using tree arguments (with ${\kappa+1}$ lowered to ${\kappa}$ in the conclusion). We give instead an elementary substructures argument due to Baumgartner, Hajnal and ${\mbox{Todor\v cevi\'c},}$ which proves the stronger version. For ${\kappa}$ a cardinal let ${2^{<\kappa}=\sup_{\lambda<\kappa}2^\lambda.}$

Theorem 1 ( ${\mbox{Erd\H os}}$-Rado) Let ${\kappa}$ be a regular cardinal and let ${\lambda=(2^{<\kappa})^+.}$ Then $\displaystyle \lambda\rightarrow(\kappa+1)^2_\mu$

for all ${\mu<\kappa.}$

305 -Homework set 8

April 24, 2009

This set is due May 1 at the beginning of lecture. Details of the homework policy can be found on the syllabus and here.

1. Solve exercises 11, 14, and 24 from Chapter 14 of the textbook.

2. Solve exercises 1, 9, and 17 from Chapter 15 of the textbook.

305 -9. Groups

April 24, 2009

We want to define the notion of group that will be fundamental to determine which polynomials are solvable by radicals. This notion is very important and appears in every area of mathematics.

We motivate the definition through the example that most concerns us: automorphisms of fields. They are particular class of isomorphisms, so we begin with them.

Some of the arguments below have been discussed in previous lectures.