This optional set is due Tuesday, February 24, at the beginning of lecture. Some of these problems are harder than others, you do not need to address all of them. Contact me if you would like additional time to keep working on some of the more difficult ones.

There are at least four points, no three of them collinear.

Theorem().There are at least points.

Proof. There is a line with at least points , and there is at least one point not in . The lines are all different, and each of them has at least points other that and the . It is not hard to see that all these points are different, giving us at least: points in , points in each of the lines and , that is, points.

Recall that if is a finite model of the projective axioms, then there is a natural number (the order of ) such that has exactly points and lines, each point belongs to exactly lines, and each line goes through exactly points. (See here for a reference with proofs of these facts, from Perspectives on projective geometry, by Jürgen Richter-Gebert.)

Show that the only model of with points is the Fano plane.

Show that all finite projective planes of order three are isomorphic (an example is described here).

Is any model of with points the finite projective plane of order three?

Is any model of with points the finite projective plane of order four? More generally, if , is any model of with points a finite projective plane of order ?

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