In this note I sketch the proof of the Löwenheim-Skølem (or Löwenheim-Skølem-Tarski) theorem for first order theories. This basic result of model theory is really a consequence of a set theoretic combinatorial lemma, as the proof will demonstrate.
Let be a first order language, understood as a set of constant, function, and relation symbols. Let
so is unless is finite, in which case we take Talking about rather than simplifies the presentation slightly.
The Löwenheim-Skølem theorem is concerned with the possible infinite sizes of models of first order theories. Of course, a theory could only have finite models; the result does not say anything about if that is the case.
We will prove a more precise statement. Before stating it, note that it is possible to have a theory in some uncountable language such that has models of certain infinite sizes, but not all. Theorem 1 does not say anything about infinite models of of size What cardinals in this range are the possible sizes of models of is actually a rather difficult problem, and we will not address it.